Standard Focus: ESS2.A: Earth’s Materials and Systems– All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet’s systems. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth’s hot interior. The energy that flows and matter that cycles produce chemical and physical changes in Earth’s materials and living organisms. (MS-ESS2-1)
Today we are going to take another look at how the Earth’s Systems are connected. Let’s look at the phrase “Earth System Science (ESS)“. The information below are excerps from Earth System Science at http://www.cotf.edu/ete/ess/essmain.html.
In the phrase “Earth system science (ESS),” the key term is “system.” A system is a collection of interdependent parts enclosed within a defined boundary. Within the boundary of the earth is a collection of four interdependent parts called “spheres“: the lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere.
The spheres are so closely connected that a change in one sphere often results in a change in one or more of the other spheres. Such changes that take place within an ecosystem are referred to as events.
Events can occur naturally, such as an earthquake or a hurricane, or they can be caused by humans, such as an oil spill or air pollution. An event can cause changes to occur in one or more of the spheres, and/or an event can be the effect of changes in one or more of Earth’s four spheres. This two-way cause and effect relationship between an event and a sphere is called an interaction. Interactions also occur among the spheres; for example, a change in the atmosphere can cause a change in the hydrosphere, and vice versa.
Understanding the interactions that occur in the earth system also helps people to prepare for the effects of natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions; this understanding allows people to predict things like how far and in what direction the lava will flow. This relatively new field of studying the interactions between and among events and the earth’s spheres is called Earth system science (ESS).
We are now going to go the Earth System Science at http://www.cotf.edu/ete/ess/essmain.html for some examples.
- Each pair/small group will select/be assigned a video below.
- You will look at the EVENT and first decide how it may cause a change to each of the spheres (hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere) and how those spheres may impact the event.
- event lithosphere
- event lithosphere
- You will make a connection model in INSPIRATION like this one to show and EXPLAIN your connections.
- REMEMBER: The double-headed arrows () indicate that the cause and effect relationships of these interactions go in both directions; for example, “event hydrosphere” refers to the effects of the event on the hydrosphere, as well as the effects of the hydrosphere on the event.
- NEXT, you will think and write down how your events will connect the spheres to each other.
- lithosphere hydrosphere
- lithosphere hydrosphere
- Again, the double-headed arrows () indicate that the cause and effect relationships of the interactions go in both directions; for example, “lithosphere hydrosphere” refers to the effects of the lithosphere on the hydrosphere, as well as the effects of the hydrosphere on the lithosphere.
- YOU will then finish your INSPIRATION like the following diagram with EXPLANATIONS FOR THE CONNECTIONS:
How Wolves Change Rivers– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ysa5OBhXz-Q&index=3&list=PLRg-eXrZuuUfYKwIGFVKsymVY7tzUCayS
The European Green Crab Invasion
- GMRI Green Crab Video- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ttykq-0AcJU
- Green Crabs in Freeport- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r070MIl_krY
- News Articles
- New England Ocean Odyssey- http://www.newenglandoceanodyssey.org/author/ellie-milano/
- Portland Press Herald article- Maine_Voices_Clam_diggers_cant_weather_climate_change
- What makes the ocean temperature rise?
BP Oil Spill
- Underwater Impact of the BP Oil Spill- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lY-PikuXTYY
- Gulf of Oil Spill on Wildlife- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Uax5FRWnvs
- Attack of the Show BP Impact on Wildlife- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-OVNd6Fa9fg
- Impacts- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3f4nMA54ah8
- Super Team Studies Iceland Eruptions- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vefoR9L2WmQ
- Did Icelandic Eruption Impact Weather? (2010) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z4xAkb7pqjY
Mars Biosphere– What interactions are needed in order to create a biosphere on Mars? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2CPqPsBIHpU&list=PLn2OgwG65i-XWNnuuPlNNYNv6yCjEiZQI